Monday, 21 March 2016

Future Perfect How to Use

ContentsGrammar in Dialogues → How to Use Past Perfect

Read and understand the following explanations on usage of Future Perfect tense and then examine illustrative examples from Classics.

 1. The Future Perfect expresses an action accomplished before a given future moment. The given future moment is usually expressed by adverbial phrases, clauses of time or understood from the situation (see dialogues 1, 2, 3).

Note: In adverbial clauses of time introduced by the conjunctions when, before, after, as soon as, till and until the Present Perfect is found to express a future action. It shows that the action of the subordinate clause will be accomplished before the action of the principal clause (which is usually expressed by the Future Indefinite) (dialogues 4, 5).

 2. The Future Perfect is very occasionally used to express an action which begins before a given future moment and continues into it. This use is found with stative verbs (dialogue 6).

Examples from Classics 

1. Kitty and her husband Walter are not getting on well together. They have sat in their sitting-room on silence for an hour. At last they give up the pretence of reading and Walter suddenly stands up, his eyes averted. 

Walter: I have some work to do. If you don’t mind I’ll go into my study. I dare say you’ll have gone to bed by the time I’ve finished.
Kitty: I am rather tired to-night.
Walter: Well, good night.
Kitty: Good night.
(W. S. Maugham. The Painted Veil) 

 2. Paddington, a tame bear, is going to take a picture of a family group while the sun’ shining. 

Paddington: I’m afraid you’ll have to come over here. The sun’ moved.
Mr Brown (grumbling): I’m not surprised. At the rate we’re going it will have set before we’re finished.
Mrs Bird: I never realized having a picture taken could be so complicated.
(M. Bond. Paddington’s Adventures in England) 

 3. Leila is dancing with an old man at a ball. The young girls’ chaperones in dark dresses sit on the stage looking on.

Leila: I think it’s marvelous to be still going on.
The old man: Kind little lady. Of course, you can’t hope to last anything like as long as that. No-o, long before that you’ll be sitting up there on the stage, looking on, in your nice black velvet. And these pretty arms will have turned into a little short fat ones, and you’ll beat time with such a different kind of fan – a black ebony one….
Leila: I want to stop.
(K. Mansfield. Her First Ball) 

  4. After supper the landlady makes the last arrangements before turning in. She talks to her boarder, a young girl.

The landlady: Will you want anything else?
Helena: Nothing at all, thanks.
The landlady: Oh! then I think I will go to bed when I’ve washed the dishes. You will put the lamp out, dear?
Helena: I am well used to a lamp. We use them always at home.
(D. H. Lawrence. The Trespasser) 

 5. William is sent on an errand by his father. 

Morris Stroup: Son, as soon as you’ve had your breakfast in the morning, I want you to go down to Brown’s grocery. Get another egg out of the chicken house and take it down and swap it for some more corn. As soon as breakfast is over, I’ll want to feed College Boy *. He’s pretty well tuckered out, and I want to feed him well so he’ll get his strength back.
William: All right, Pa. I sure will.
(E. Caldwell. Georgia Boy) 
* College Boy – a fighting cock

6. Mother and daughter talk about Larry, a young man who loves Isabel but leaves Chicago to study literature in Paris. 

Mrs Bradley: Don’t you ever talk to him about Chicago?
Isabel: Yes, a lot.
Mrs Bradley: Hasn’t he given any sort of indication that he intends to come back?
Isabel: I can’t say he has.
Mrs Bradley: He will have been gone two years next October.
Isabel: I know.
(W. S. Maugham. Tha Rasor’s Edge)