Wednesday, 11 January 2012

The Indefinite Tenses

The Indefinite Tenses: grammar rules, usage and patterns.
present indefinite (or present simple)
future indefinite (or future simple)
past indefinite (or past simple)

The Present Indefinite

The Formation of the Present Indefinite

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I work.
He works.
She works.
It works.
We work.
You work.
They work.
Do I work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
I do not work.
He does not work.
She does not work.
It does not work.
We do not work.
You do not work.
They do not work.

The Present Indefinite is used to denote:
1) customary and permanent actions or states.

Affirmative Sentences 
Key example:
I study English. Ann studies English.

For study:
What do I do in the morning?         What does Ann do in the morning?
  1. I get up at 7.
  2. I do morning exercises.
  3. I take a shower.
  4. I get my breakfast ready.
  1. Ann gets up at 7.
  2. Ann does morning exercises.
  3. Ann takes a shower.
  4. Ann gets her breakfast ready.

What do I usually do?                        What does Ann usually do?
  1. I seldom switch the TV on.
  2. I often play the piano.
  3. I usually read books.
  4. I always listen to the latest news.
  5. I often take a walk.
  6. I never have my supper late.
  1. Ann seldom switches the TV on.
  2. Ann often plays the piano.
  3. Ann usually reads books.
  4. Ann always listens to the latest news.
  5. Ann often takes a walk.
  6. Ann never has her supper late. 

Negative Sentences 
What do I not do on Sunday?             What does Ann not do on Sunday?
  1. I do not (don’t) get up early on Sunday. 
  2. I do not set the alarm-clock. 
  3. I do not go to the office.
  4. I do not have dinner at the dining-room. 
  5. I do not stay at home the whole day. 
  1. Ann does not (doesn’t) get up early on Sunday. 
  2. Ann does not set the alarm-clock.
  3. Ann does not go to the office.
  4. Ann does not have dinner at the dining-room.
  5. Ann does not stay at home the whole day.

Interrogative Sentences 
General questions
  1. Do I teach English?  
  2. Do we study at the reading-hall? 
  3. Do you read books in the original?  
  4. Do they attend concerts?
  1. Does Ann go to the University on Sunday?
  2. Does Ann go in for sports? 
  3. Does Ann play the piano well?
  4. Does Ann attend concers?

Special Questions 
(Special questions in which an interrogative pronoun is the subject or an attribute to the subject are formed without the auxiliary verb to do.)
  1. When does Ann come home? 
  2. Where does Ann study? 
  3. When does the sun shine brightly? 
  4. What bread do you buy?  
  5. Why do birds fly to warm countries?  
  6. How often do parents come to school?
  1. Who comes home at 6?
  2. Who studies at school?
  3. What shines brightly in summer? 
  4. Who buys bread in your family?
  5. What birds fly to warm countries?
  6. Whose father often comes to school? 

2) a future action in adverbial clauses of time and condition.

Key example:
I shall call on you when (if) I am free.

For study:
  1. Ann will have dinner when she comes from school. 
  2. Ann will lay the table after she washes her hands. 
  3. Ann will help mother with the salad when the table is set. 
  4. Ann will slice the bread if mother is busy. 
  5. Ann will not wash up until all have dinner.

The Future Indefinite

auxiliary verb shall/will + infinitive

The Formation of the Future Indefinite

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I shall work. (I’ll work).
He will work. (He’ll work).
She will work.
It will work.
We shall work.
You will work.
They will work.
Shall I work?
Will he work?
Will she work?
Will it work?
Shall we work?
Will you work?
Will they work?
I shall not (shan’t) work.
He will not (won’t) work.
She will not work.
It will not work.
We shall not work.
You will not work.
They will not work.

The Future Indefinite is used to denote a future action.

Key example:
I’ll see you tomorrow.

For study:
  1. I’ll be delighted to go to the country. 
  2. You’ll be glad to see my friend. 
  3. They’ll be eager to make us comfortable. 
  4. We’ll go skiing and skating.

The Past Indefinite

The Formation of the Past Indefinite

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I worked.
He worked.
She worked.
It worked.
We worked.
You worked.
They worked.
Did I work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?
I did not (didn’t) work.
He did not (didn’t) work.
She did not work.
It did not work.
We did not work.
You did not work.
They did not work.

The Past Indefinite is used to denote a customary or a separate action referring to the past. (The time of the action may be indicated by adverbs of past time – yesterday, a week ago, last month, two days ago, etc.)

Key examples: 
It often rained last summer.
He was at home yesterday.
Sam graduated from the University in 1999.
He entered the room, took off his coat and set to work.

For study:
  1. The weather was mild that winter. 
  2. The sun shone brightly. 
  3. The snow melted quickly. 
  4. The wind blew softly. 
  5. Some trees broke into blossom. 
  6. We didn’t wear winter coat.

Note. – A repeat action in the past is often expressed by used to + Infinitive or would + Infinitive.
E.g.  - I used to bathe before breakfast. He would join me on the beach every morning.