Monday, 26 August 2013

The Participle



The Forms of the Participle

  Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Note : - Those are the forms of Participle I which is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb (to go - going, to read - reading, etc.). Participle II has only one form (asked, came. spoken, cut, etc.).

Indefinite Participle denotes an action simultaneous with what expressed by the finite verb.
Perfect Participle denotes an action prior to that expressed by the finite verb.


Examples: 
  • While tramping the country he got to know it very well. 
  • Being locked in the Red room Jane Eyre began to cry. 
  • Having written the letter she went out to post it. 
  • Having been written many centuries ago the manuscript is almost illegible. 

Functions of the Participle in Sentences

Participle I is used in the function of a predicative, an attribute and an adverbial modifier.

Patterns. Read and memorize!
  1. The effect of his words was surprising. (predicative) 
  2. The house overlooking the garden was very old. (attribute) 
  3. We all looked at the laughing boy. (attribute) 
  4. Approaching the station we heard the hooting of the engine. (adverbial modifier of time) 
  5. While (when) waiting for him in the park I looked through the newspaper. (adverbial modifier of cause) 
  6. Having posted the letter she took a short cut home. (adverbial modifier of time) 
  7. Being very tired he went to bed early. (adverbial modifier of cause) 
  8. Having a good command in English he could work as an interpreter. (adverbial modifier of cause) 
  9. She went down the stairs making two steps at time. (adverbial modifier of manner)
Note 1: - When used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, Participle I is often preceded by the conjunctions ‘when’ or ‘while’.

Note 2: - Participle I of the verb 'to be' is always used as an adverbial modifier of cause (not time).

Note 3: - An attribute expressed by Participle I can only denote simultaneousness as the perfect form of Participle I is not used attributively.
Compare:
(1) The boy answering at the blackboard knew his lesson well.
(2) The boy who answered at the blackboard yesterday is writing a composition.

Participle II is also used in the function of a predicative, an attribute and an adverbial modifier.

Patterns. Read and memorize!
  1. He banged at the locked door but to no effect. (attribute) 
  2. The letter unanswered is still on the desk. (attribute) 
  3. When reminded of her promise she always blushed. (adverbial modifier of time) 
  4. Don’t take this chair. It’s quite broken. (predicative) 
  5. If learnt by heart the poem can be recited at our party. (adverbial modifier of condition)
Note: - When used as an adverbial modifier Participle II is always preceded by a conjunction (when, while, if, etc.)