Saturday, 28 January 2012

The Perfect Tenses


The Perfect Tenses: grammar rules, examples and when to use.
present perfect
past perfect
future perfect

The Present Perfect

The Formation of the Present Perfect

auxiliary verb to have (have/has) + Participle II 
(the present tense of the verb to have + the past participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I have worked.
He has worked.
She has worked.
It has worked.
We have worked.
You have worked.
They have worked.
Have I worked?
Has he worked?
Has she worked?
Has it worked?
Have we worked?
Have you worked?
Have they worked?
I have not worked.
He has not worked.
She has not worked.
It has not worked.
We have not worked.
You have not worked.
They have not worked.
(Verb Contractions: I have = I’ve; he has = he’s; she has = she’s; it has = it’s;  we have = we’ve; you have = you’ve;  they have = they’ve) 

The Present Perfect denotes:
1) a completed action closely connected with the present when the time os the action is indefinite.

Key example: 
Mr. Smith has finished his work. He can rest now.

For study:
  1. Mrs. Smith had laid the table. The family are having dinner. 
  2. Granny has prepared a surprise. Everybody is looking forward to it.
  3. Granny has baked a layer cake. The family are enjoying it. 
  4. Jane has cleared the table. She can do her lessons now.
  5. Little Kate has gone for a walk. It is quiet in the house.
Note: - The Present Perfect is not used when the time of the action in the past is definite, e.g.: I finished my work at 8 o’clock.

Wednesday, 11 January 2012

The Indefinite Tenses


The Indefinite Tenses: grammar rules, usage and patterns.
present indefinite (or present simple)
future indefinite (or future simple)
past indefinite (or past simple)

The Present Indefinite

The Formation of the Present Indefinite

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I work.
He works.
She works.
It works.
We work.
You work.
They work.
Do I work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
I do not work.
He does not work.
She does not work.
It does not work.
We do not work.
You do not work.
They do not work.

The Present Indefinite is used to denote:
1) customary and permanent actions or states.

Affirmative Sentences 
Key example:
I study English. Ann studies English.

For study:
What do I do in the morning?         What does Ann do in the morning?
  1. I get up at 7.
  2. I do morning exercises.
  3. I take a shower.
  4. I get my breakfast ready.
  1. Ann gets up at 7.
  2. Ann does morning exercises.
  3. Ann takes a shower.
  4. Ann gets her breakfast ready.

What do I usually do?                        What does Ann usually do?
  1. I seldom switch the TV on.
  2. I often play the piano.
  3. I usually read books.
  4. I always listen to the latest news.
  5. I often take a walk.
  6. I never have my supper late.
  1. Ann seldom switches the TV on.
  2. Ann often plays the piano.
  3. Ann usually reads books.
  4. Ann always listens to the latest news.
  5. Ann often takes a walk.
  6. Ann never has her supper late. 

Saturday, 7 January 2012

The Continuous Forms


The Continuous Tenses: grammar rules, usage and examples.
present continuous 
past continuous
future continuous

The Present Continuous

The Formation of the Present Continuous

auxiliary verb to be (is/are) + Participle I 
(the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am walking.
He is walking.
She is walking.
It is walking.
We are walking.
You are walking.
They are walking.
Am I walking?
Is he walking?
Is she walking?
Is it walking?
Are we walking?
Are you walking?
Are they walking?
I am not walking.
He is not walking.
She is not walking.
It is not walking.
We are not walking.
You are not walking.
They are not walking.

The Present Continuous is used to denote:
1) an action going on at the present moment.

Key example: 
Children are going to school now.

For study: 
Look out of the window in the morning!
  1. Cars are running along the street.
  2. People are hurrying to work. 
  3. Children are going to school.
  4. Some are crossing the street.
  5. A milkmaid is pouring milk into a jug. 
  6. A man is selling newspapers. 
  7. A woman is approaching the grocery.

Monday, 2 January 2012

Comparison of Adjectives


The Formation of Degrees of Comparison


Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree
a). long
gay
big
pretty
longer
gayer
bigger
prettier
the longest
the gayest
the biggest
the prettiest
b). useful
correct
difficult
more useful
more correct
more difficult
the most useful
the most correct
the most difficult

c). good
bad
many / much
little
better
worse
more
less
the best
the worst
the most
the least

There is, There are


There is, There are

Key examples:

There is a piano in the room.
There are no people there.

Usage: the construction there is, there are is used when we state the presence or absence of something at some place.

For study:

There is (are) There is (are) no

1. There is a table in the kitchen.

1. There is no table in the kitchen.

2. There is a cupboard near the window.

2. There is no cupboard near the window.

3. There is a shelf in the corner.

3. There is no shelf in the corner.

4. There is a refrigerator opposite the door.

4. There is no refrigerator opposite the door.

5. There are plates in the cupboard.

5. There are no plates in the cupboard.

6. There are pots on the shelf.

6. There are no pots on the shelf.

7. There are knives in the drawer.

7. There are no knives in the drawer.

It (pronoun)

Personal It

Key examples:

Is the milk hot or cold? It is hot.
Where is the house? It is over there.
Bring me the book. It is on the shelf.

Usage: the personal it is used instead of name of things and animals mentioned.

For study:
  1. Have a glass of milk, please. It is good.
  2. Help yourself to the cake. It is delicious.
  3. Would you like some coffee? It is good.
  4. Would you pass me the sugar? It is near your plate.
  5. Let’s have tea at once. It is on the table.


Sunday, 1 January 2012

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