Friday, 28 December 2012

The Infinitive


The Forms of the Infinitive

  Active Passive
Indefinite to teach to be taught
Continuous to be teaching to be being taught
Perfect to have taught to have been taught
Perfect Continuous to have been teaching    ---

The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb.
E.g.: I shall be glad to see him.

The Continuous Infinitive denotes an action in progress simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb.
E.g.: He seemed to be waiting for us.

The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to that expressed by the finite verb.
E.g.: I am sorry to have troubled you.

The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb.
E.g.: He proved to have been teaching English for ten years.

The Active Infinitive denotes that the subject is the doer of the action.
The Passive Infinitive denotes that the subject is acted upon.
E.g.: The man came to teach us English.
         The man came to be taught English.

Monday, 17 December 2012

Modal Phrases (Had Better and Would Rather)


Semi-modal multi-word constructions 'had better' and 'would rather' are followed by the infinitive without to.

Examples: 
  • We had better go into the house because it is raining. 
  • I can come today but I would rather come tomorrow.

Had Better

'Had better' expresses advice and means 'would find it wiser or more suitable'.
E.g.: You had better go now (=it would be good, wise or suitable for you to go now).

Synonyms: ought to do something / should do something.

In negative structures, better comes before not.
E.g.: You had better not go now.

Patterns. Read and memorize!
  1. We had better take an umbrella. It may rain. (We’d (1) better…) 
  2. He’d better stop and have a rest if he feels tired. 
  3. You’d better go on the excursion. 
  4. You had better not eat so much. (You’d better…) 
  5. Hadn’t you better hurry if you want to catch the eight o’clock train? (2) 
  6. What had I better put on for the party?
Note 1: - The contracted form ‘d is very common.
Note 2: - The negative form 'hadn't better' is used mainly in questions: Hadn't we better try again later?

►'Had' is sometimes dropped in very informal speech.
E. g. : You better go now. 
           I better try again later.

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

There is There are Dialogues


'There is - There are' construction through real life dialogues and proverbs

I hope this page will enable the English learner to see how to use There is/are rules in the right ways and put grammar learning into context.

Dialogues

1.
A: There is something I’d like to talk to you about.
B: Perhaps we leave it for tomorrow.

2.
A: There is a wonderful novel among your books. May I take it?
B: Of course, you may.

3.
A: Was there anything interesting in this book?
B: Yes, there is a lot of very useful material in Chapter 3.

Tuesday, 13 November 2012

There is - There are Exercises



This page contains free 'there is/are' grammar exercises with answer keys when necessary.

Exercise I
Write the interrogative and negative form of the following sentences according to the models:

Model 1:
There is a pen on the desk.
Is there a pen on the desk?
There is no pen on the desk.
  1. There is a magazine on the desk.
  2. There is a garden near the house.
  3. There is a hole in my trousers.

Model 2:
There is some tea in the glass.
Is there any tea in the glass?
There is no tea in the glass.
  1. There is some butter on the plate.
  2. There is some milk in the jug.
  3. There is some bread on the table.

Model 3:
There are some dogs in the park.
Are there any dogs in the park?
There are no dogs in the park.
  1. There are some pictures in the room.
  2. There are some chairs in the kitchen.
  3. There are some people outside.

Tuesday, 23 October 2012

Perfect Tense Examples (Proverbs and Quotations)


Proverbs

Note the use of the Present Perfect Tense in the following proverbs and sayings.

  1. It is too late to lock the stable after the horse has bolted.
  2. Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet.
  3. The cow knows not what her tail is worth until she has lost it.
  4. We know not what is good until we have lost it.
  5. When children stand quiet they have done something ill.
  6. Don’t sell the bear’s skin before you have caught the bear.
  7. Every oak has been an acorn.
  8. Drink as you have brewed.
  9. Wine has drowned more men than the sea. (Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune.)
  10. A thief passes for a gentleman when stealing has made him rich.
  11. A lot of water has run under the bridge.
  12. Life is what you make of it. Always has been, always will be.
  13. Success has brought many to destruction.

Monday, 8 October 2012

Modal Verb Dare


Dare

As a modal verb dare has two forms: dare for the present and dared for the past. It is used mostly in interrogative and negative sentences. 'Dare' means 'to have the courage to do something'. In negative sentences it denotes lack of courage to do something.

Examples:  
 She dare not open her mouth. (She hasn’t got the courage.)
 Dare he tell them what he knows? (Is he brave enough to tell them?)

Patterns. Read and memorize!

Affirmative 1 Interrogative Negative
I dare say this. Dare I say this?I dare not say this.

She dare say this.Dare she say this? She dare not say this.
He dare say this.Dare he say this? He dare not say this.
We dare say this.Dare we say this? We dare not say this.
You dare say this.Dare you say this? You dare not say this.
They dare say this.Dare they say this? They dare not say this.

Note 1: - Modal verb 'dare' is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences.

Note 2: – There is a contracted negative daren’t [deənt]. In British English, the negative 'daren’t' is frequent:
E. g. :  She daren’t tell the boss because she doesn’t want to make trouble.

Sunday, 30 September 2012

Modal Verb Need

The verb need has two sets of forms: those of a 'modal auxiliary verb', and those of an 'ordinary verb'. As a modal verb need has no –s on the third person singular, no infinitives and participles; it combines with a bare infinitive; questions and negatives are made without do.  

Patterns. Read and memorize! 

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I need hardly go there.Need I mention these words?I needn’t be afraid.

She need hardly go thereNeed she mention these words? She needn’t be afraid.
He need hardly go there.Need he mention these words? He needn’t be afraid.
We need hardly go there.Need we mention these words? We needn’t be afraid.
You need hardly go there.Need you mention these words? You needn’t be afraid.
They need hardly go there.Need they mention these words? They needn’t be afraid.

Note 1: - The modal verb 'need' has only one tense form – the present.

Note 2:'Need' is mostly used in negative and interrogative sentences, and in sentences which express doubt or negative ideas.

Note 3: – There is a contracted negative needn’t .

Thursday, 13 September 2012

Should and Ought to


Modal verbs: Should and Ought

There is hardly any difference in meaning between should and ought. Both express duty, obligation, advice. It must be remembered that ought is always followed by to + infinitive.

Patterns. Read and memorize!
  1. John should study English hard. 
  2. John should read English books loudly. 
  3. John should work on his pronunciation. 
  4. John should write dictations regularly. 
  5. John ought to practise oral drills.
  6. John ought to drill the patterns.
  7. John ought to recite English poems. 
  8. John ought to listen to good records.

Tuesday, 4 September 2012

Modal Verb Can Examples


There are examples of the use of modal verb CAN in proverbs and quotations .

Proverbs

I
Note the use of the verb 'can' in the following proverbs and sayings.
  1. No man can serve two masters.
  2. A man can die but once.
  3. A golden key can open any door
  4. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
  5. A beggar can never be bankrupt.
  6. None can play the fool so well as a wise man.
  7. A man can do no more than he can.
  8. Give a lie twenty-four hours’ start and you can never overtake it.
  9. Two of a trade can never agree.
  10. Blind men can judge no colours.
  11. Two can live as cheaply as one.
  12. Don't try to walk before you can crawl .

Saturday, 18 August 2012

Examples of Modal Verbs in Texts and Dialogues

Below are short texts and dialogues which contain all the modal verbs. I hope that exploring these examples of the use of modal verbs will help learners build their confidence in using them.

Text 1

The Story of Helen Keller, The Girl Who Could Not See, Hear or Speak

I’d like you to know the story of Helen Keller, who could neither see nor hear from the time she was a baby. Yet the brilliant girl was able to overcome all those handicaps, to graduate from a college with honors and become a useful citizen.

I must say there was nothing wrong with Helen Keller when she was born. Her father and mother were very proud of their pretty baby, who tried to say “pa-pa” and “ma-ma”.

For nineteen months Helen grew bigger and stronger. She was able to walk when she was a year old; she could say a few words.

But one day the child fell ill. She must have been very ill. For days she was laid up with a high fever and soon the parents learned that their darling would never be able to see and hear.

The little child was now doomed to a life of silence and darkness. She could not hear what was said to her and did not know how to talk, she was unable to play with other children.

When Helen was 6 years old her parents took her to Baltimore and then to Washington to famous doctors to find out if they could do something to make her hear and see again, but the doctors could do nothing. The child was hopelessly deaf. Dr. Bell said the Kellers should address the Perkins Institution for the blind in Boston and ask if they could send someone to help the child.

It was a wonderful day for Helen Keller when Ann Sullivan arrived in March 1887 to take charge of the child who could neither hear nor speak. Helen was nearly seven, Ann Sullivan was past twenty.

Ann Sullivan found a way to make herself understood. She gave the child a doll, and taking Helen Keller’s hand she slowly spelled out "d-o-l". The child learnt for the first time that things must have names.

When Miss Sullivan later spelled into the little girl’s hand the word “w-a-t-e-r” and then let the water from the pumps run over her hand, a new light seemed to brighten the face of the child. During the next 3 months, she learned 300 words and could even put some of them into sentences.
Miss Sullivan loved her pupil who was so quick to learn. She lived with Helen, played with her and worked with her every hour of the day. By means of the hand language, Helen and her teacher were able to talk to each other.

Wednesday, 15 August 2012

Modal Verb May


The Forms, Meanings and Use of the Modal Verb MAY (MIGHT).

May and might are modal auxiliary verb, like for example must , can  and ought. These verbs have no infinitives or participles (to may, mighted, maying do not exist), question and negatives are made without do (may I?, not Do I may?). Like other modal verbs, 'may' has no –s on the third person singular (he may, not he mays); 'may' and 'might' are followed by infinitives without to.  

Patterns. Read and memorize! 
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I may attend lectures at the University. May I attend lectures at the University? I may not attend lectures at the University.
He may attend lectures at the University.May he attend lectures at the University? He may not attend lectures at the University.
She may attend lectures at the University.May she attend lectures at the University? She may not attend lectures at the University.
It may go.May it go? It may not go.
We may attend lectures at the University.May we attend lectures at the University? We may not attend lectures at the University.
You may attend lectures at the University.May you attend lectures at the University? You may not attend lectures at the University.
They may attend lectures at the University.May they attend lectures at the University? They may not attend lectures at the University.
Note 1: - The modal verb 'may' has two forms – may in the present and might in the past. The missing tense is supplied by the future of to be allowed to.
E. g. : I shall be allowed to attend lectures at the University.
          He was allowed to come later.

Note 2: - Contracted negative forms exist: mightn’t is common, but mayn’t is very unusual.


► Might does not normally have a past sense, but it can be used as the past tense of 'may' in 'indirect speech' to report the giving of permission.
  • 'What are you doing here?' – 'The manager said that I might look round.'
  • He said that we might take his car. 

Thursday, 19 July 2012

Modal Verbs: Can


The Forms, Meanings and Use of the Modal Verb CAN (COULD).

Can and could are modal auxiliary verb, like for example must, may and should. Like other modal verbs, 'can' has no –s on the third person singular (he can, not he cans); questions and negatives are made without do (Can I?, Could I? not Do I can?, Did I could?); these verbs are followed by the infinitive without to (e. g.: I can do it.). 'Can' and 'could' have no infinitive or participles (to can, canning do not exist).

Patterns. Read and memorize! 
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I can swim.Can I swim? I cannot swim.
He can swim.Can he swim? He cannot swim.
She can swim.Can she swim? She cannot swim.
It can swim.Can it swim? It cannot swim.
We can swim.Can we swim? We cannot swim.
You can swim.Can you swim? You cannot swim.
They can swim.Can they swim? They cannot swim.
Note 1: - the modal verb 'can' has only two forms – can in the present and could in the past. The missing tense is supplied by the future of to be able.
E. g. : I shall be able to prepare for my exams.

Note 2: - There are contracted negative form can’t, couldn’t.
E. g.: I can’t understand.

Be careful about the pronunciation of 'can’t': in British English it has a quite different vowel from 'can'.
Can [kᴂnt]; can’t [kɑːnt] (GB), [kᴂnt] (US).

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Modal Verbs: Must


The Forms, Meanings and Use of the Modal Verb MUST.

Must is a modal auxiliary verb. 'Must' has no infinitive or participles. It  has only one tense form in the present. Like other modal verbs, 'must' has no –s on the third person singular (he must, not he musts); questions and negatives are made without do (Must I?, not Do I must?); 'must' is followed by the infinitive without to (e. g.: I must do it).

Patterns. Read and memorize! 
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I must do it now.Must I do it now? I must not do it now.
He must do it now.Must he do it now? He must not do it now.
She must do it now.Must she do it now? She must not do it now.
It must do it now.Must it do it now? It must not do it now.
We must do it now.Must we do it now? We must not do it now.
You must do it now.Must you do it now? You must not do it now.
They must do it now.Must they do it now? They must not do it now.
Note 1: - The missing tenses are supplied by the past and the future tenses of to have.
E. g. : I had to meet him at the station.
          I shall have to meet him at the station.

Note 2: - There is a contracted negative form mustn’t [mʌsnt].
E. g.: He mustn’t find out what’s happening.

Wednesday, 13 June 2012

Passive Voice: Texts, Proverbs and Quotations.


Passive Voice Examples in Texts, Proverbs and Quotations

Texts

Concentrate on the use of the verbs in the Passive Voice.

Text 1. 

How Towns Have Arisen

Most villages and towns on the British Isles came into being because of their favourable situation for trade.
Rather more than a hundred years ago, a great change came over the land. Many machines were invented about that time. Spinning and weaving, for example, which had previously been done by hand, were done by machinery that were driven by water or steam-power.
The work which usually was done in the houses of the people began to be carried on in large mills or factories, and workers found it convenient to live near them.
More and more factories were built and men and women left the country districts in great numbers and crowded into towns.
Since then the movement of people into towns has been going on until now. England is dotted with great cities.
All over Britain, and especially in those parts were the coal needed for power is to be found, there are mining and manufacturing areas, such as the Lancashire cotton district, the Black county of Midland, and others. A great many towns are found close together in those districts, and a great many people live within a small area, so that the population is very dense.
(After “The British Isles, Their Life and Work” by S. Bryson and Maxton)

Monday, 4 June 2012

Passive Voice Worksheets


This page contains 8 free passive voice worksheets with answer keys.  

Exercise 1.
Define the tense forms of the verbs in the following sentences. Change the sentences into interrogative form (use general questions).

Example: A man is known by the company he keeps.
Answer: Is a man known by the company he keeps? (Present Indefinite, Passive)
  1. Many new buildings have been built in London.
  2. A passenger was shown his seat. 
  3. A review of the performance will be written after the first night. 
  4. A new play is being staged at our theatre. 
  5. The contract will be signed on Tuesday. 
  6. The contract will have been signed by Tuesday. 
  7. My dog was stung by bees. 
  8. He had been introduced to me before I met you. 
  9. The factory was still being built when we came to that place. 
  10. Theatres are attended by thousands in our country. 
  11. After the table had been cleared the children began to sing and dance.
  12. His new collection of poems has just been published. 
  13. I was told yesterday that their plan hadn’t been accepted. 

Thursday, 17 May 2012

The Passive Voice


The Passive Voice: grammar rules, explanations and examples.


The Formation of the Passive Voice

auxiliary verb to be + Participle II 
A passive verb form is made with the auxiliary verb to be (in the different tenses) and the past participle of the main verb.
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am told.
She is told.
He is told.
It is made.
We are told.
You are told.
They are told.
Am I told?
Is she told?
Is he told?
Is it made?
Are we told?
Are you told?
Are they told?
I am not told.
He is not told.
She is not told.
It is not made.
We are not told.
You are not told.
They are not told.


The subject of a passive verb is usually the person or thing that is affected be the action of the verb. 
Compare: 
I wrote this letter. (Active) → This letter was written by me. (Passive)

Thursday, 26 April 2012

Future Perfect Worksheets


Free worksheets for practising Future Perfect Tense.

Exercise 1.
Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in parentheses in future perfect tense. Exercise includes both regular and irregular verbs.
  1. I ---- ---- ---- (to finish)  my work by the 1st of May.
  2. He ---- ---- ---- (to translate) this article by tomorrow.
  3. My daughter and I  ---- ---- ---- (to come) to New York by the 1st of August.
  4. We ---- ---- ---- (to be) there for a week when my husband joins us.
  5. They ---- ---- ---- (to arrive) to the stadium half an hour before the game begins.
  6. I hope you ---- ---- ---- (to recover)  before I return from my leave.

Monday, 16 April 2012

Present Perfect Worksheets

These free worksheets show how the Present Perfect Tense should be used in the English Grammar.


Exercise I.
Answer the following questions.
  1. Have you been to London?
  2. Have you stayed in London long?
  3. Have you read the book "The Song of Hiawatha" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow?
  4. Have you read "Pygmalion" by George Bernard Shaw?
  5. Has the book made an impression on you?
  6. Have you seen "My Fair Lady"?
  7. Have you seen a map of the British Isles?
  8. Have you noticed that there are no long rivers in England?
  9. Have you heard that people standing on the cliffs near Dover can see the cliffs of France?

Exercise II.
Complete the following sentences paying attention to the tense forms.

Model:
I have read two books since... → I have read two books since my vacation began.
I … since he left for London. → I haven’t seen my friend since he left for London.

  1. I have written two letters since…
  2. I haven’t seen my friend since…
  3. I haven’t been to the theatre since…
  4. He hasn’t taken his medicine since…
  5. He hasn’t slept since…
  6. He … since he fell ill.
  7. We … since we moved to New York.

Sunday, 26 February 2012

The Perfect Continuous Tenses


The Perfect Continuous Tenses: grammar rules, examples and using.
(In English, the  perfect continuous tenses can also be called the perfect progressive tenses.)
present perfect continuous
past perfect continuous
future perfect continuous

The Present Perfect Continuous

The Formation of the Present Perfect Continuous

auxiliary verb to have (have/has ) been  + Participle I 

(the present perfect tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)


Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I have been studying.
He has been studying.
She has been studying.
It has been studying.
We have been studying.
You have been studying.
They have been studying.
Have I been studying?
Has he been studying?
Has she been studying?
Has it been studying?
Have we been studying?
Have you been studying?
Have they been studying?
I have not been studying.
He has not been studying.
She has not been studying.
It has not been studying.
We have not been studying.
You have not been studying.
They have not been studying.
(Verb Contractions: I have = I’ve; he has = he’s; she has = she’s; it has = it’s;  we have = we’ve; you have = you’ve;  they have = they’ve; have not = haven't; has not = hasn't) 

The Present Perfect Continuous denotes an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and may be still going on.

 
Note: - The Present Perfect denote a complete action while with the Present Perfect Continuous there is no implication of completeness.


Key examples: 
I have been living here for three years.

The members of Parachute (rock band from Charlottesville, Virginia) graduated from college in May 2008 and since then have been touring and promoting their debut album Losing Sleep and sophomore album The Way It Was full-time.  For study:

  1. I have been studying English for 5 years.
    I have studied English. I know it.
  2. I have been reading English books all these years.
    I have read “David Copperfield”. I can speak about it.
  3. We have been practising at the language laboratory for 3 years.
    I have practised this sound thoroughly.
  4. We have been working all the time.
    I have worked hard on my composition. I like it.

Friday, 3 February 2012

Saturday, 28 January 2012

The Perfect Tenses


The Perfect Tenses: grammar rules, examples and when to use.
present perfect
past perfect
future perfect

The Present Perfect

The Formation of the Present Perfect

auxiliary verb to have (have/has) + Participle II 
(the present tense of the verb to have + the past participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I have worked.
He has worked.
She has worked.
It has worked.
We have worked.
You have worked.
They have worked.
Have I worked?
Has he worked?
Has she worked?
Has it worked?
Have we worked?
Have you worked?
Have they worked?
I have not worked.
He has not worked.
She has not worked.
It has not worked.
We have not worked.
You have not worked.
They have not worked.
(Verb Contractions: I have = I’ve; he has = he’s; she has = she’s; it has = it’s;  we have = we’ve; you have = you’ve;  they have = they’ve) 

The Present Perfect denotes:
1) a completed action closely connected with the present when the time os the action is indefinite.

Key example: 
Mr. Smith has finished his work. He can rest now.

For study:
  1. Mrs. Smith had laid the table. The family are having dinner. 
  2. Granny has prepared a surprise. Everybody is looking forward to it.
  3. Granny has baked a layer cake. The family are enjoying it. 
  4. Jane has cleared the table. She can do her lessons now.
  5. Little Kate has gone for a walk. It is quiet in the house.
Note: - The Present Perfect is not used when the time of the action in the past is definite, e.g.: I finished my work at 8 o’clock.

Wednesday, 11 January 2012

The Indefinite Tenses


The Indefinite Tenses: grammar rules, usage and patterns.
present indefinite (or present simple)
future indefinite (or future simple)
past indefinite (or past simple)

The Present Indefinite

The Formation of the Present Indefinite

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I work.
He works.
She works.
It works.
We work.
You work.
They work.
Do I work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
I do not work.
He does not work.
She does not work.
It does not work.
We do not work.
You do not work.
They do not work.

The Present Indefinite is used to denote:
1) customary and permanent actions or states.

Affirmative Sentences 
Key example:
I study English. Ann studies English.

For study:
What do I do in the morning?         What does Ann do in the morning?
  1. I get up at 7.
  2. I do morning exercises.
  3. I take a shower.
  4. I get my breakfast ready.
  1. Ann gets up at 7.
  2. Ann does morning exercises.
  3. Ann takes a shower.
  4. Ann gets her breakfast ready.

What do I usually do?                        What does Ann usually do?
  1. I seldom switch the TV on.
  2. I often play the piano.
  3. I usually read books.
  4. I always listen to the latest news.
  5. I often take a walk.
  6. I never have my supper late.
  1. Ann seldom switches the TV on.
  2. Ann often plays the piano.
  3. Ann usually reads books.
  4. Ann always listens to the latest news.
  5. Ann often takes a walk.
  6. Ann never has her supper late. 

Saturday, 7 January 2012

The Continuous Forms


The Continuous Tenses: grammar rules, usage and examples.
present continuous 
past continuous
future continuous

The Present Continuous

The Formation of the Present Continuous

auxiliary verb to be (is/are) + Participle I 
(the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am walking.
He is walking.
She is walking.
It is walking.
We are walking.
You are walking.
They are walking.
Am I walking?
Is he walking?
Is she walking?
Is it walking?
Are we walking?
Are you walking?
Are they walking?
I am not walking.
He is not walking.
She is not walking.
It is not walking.
We are not walking.
You are not walking.
They are not walking.

The Present Continuous is used to denote:
1) an action going on at the present moment.

Key example: 
Children are going to school now.

For study: 
Look out of the window in the morning!
  1. Cars are running along the street.
  2. People are hurrying to work. 
  3. Children are going to school.
  4. Some are crossing the street.
  5. A milkmaid is pouring milk into a jug. 
  6. A man is selling newspapers. 
  7. A woman is approaching the grocery.

Monday, 2 January 2012

Comparison of Adjectives


The Formation of Degrees of Comparison


Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree
a). long
gay
big
pretty
longer
gayer
bigger
prettier
the longest
the gayest
the biggest
the prettiest
b). useful
correct
difficult
more useful
more correct
more difficult
the most useful
the most correct
the most difficult

c). good
bad
many / much
little
better
worse
more
less
the best
the worst
the most
the least

There is, There are


There is, There are

Key examples:

There is a piano in the room.
There are no people there.

Usage: the construction there is, there are is used when we state the presence or absence of something at some place.

For study:

There is (are) There is (are) no

1. There is a table in the kitchen.

1. There is no table in the kitchen.

2. There is a cupboard near the window.

2. There is no cupboard near the window.

3. There is a shelf in the corner.

3. There is no shelf in the corner.

4. There is a refrigerator opposite the door.

4. There is no refrigerator opposite the door.

5. There are plates in the cupboard.

5. There are no plates in the cupboard.

6. There are pots on the shelf.

6. There are no pots on the shelf.

7. There are knives in the drawer.

7. There are no knives in the drawer.

It (pronoun)

Personal It

Key examples:

Is the milk hot or cold? It is hot.
Where is the house? It is over there.
Bring me the book. It is on the shelf.

Usage: the personal it is used instead of name of things and animals mentioned.

For study:
  1. Have a glass of milk, please. It is good.
  2. Help yourself to the cake. It is delicious.
  3. Would you like some coffee? It is good.
  4. Would you pass me the sugar? It is near your plate.
  5. Let’s have tea at once. It is on the table.


Sunday, 1 January 2012

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